Toolkit Support for Integrating Physical and Digital Interactions

Scott R. Klemmer, and James A. Landay
HCI Journal, 2009
Thereisgreatpotentialinenablinguserstointeractwithdigitalinformation by integrating it with everyday physical objects. However, developing these interfaces requires programmers to acquire and abstract physical input. This is difficult, is time-consuming, and requires a high level of technical expertise in fields very different from user interface development — especially in the case of computer vision. Based on structured interviews with researchers, a literature review, and our own experience building physical interfaces,we created Papier-Mâché,a toolkit for integrating physical and digital interactions. Its library supports computer vision, electronic tags, and barcodes. Papier-Mâché introduces high-level abstractions for working with these input technologies that facilitate technology portability. We evaluated this toolkit through a laboratory study and longitudinal use in course and research projects, finding the input abstractions, technology portability, and monitoring facilities to be highly effective.


This project is known for: Papier-Mache Papier-Mâché toolkit